Relative Clauses / Relative Pronouns / Adjective Clauses

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE

 

I congratulated the student.       She got the highest mark.

I congratulated the student                    who got the highest mark.

that got the highest mark.

 

Can you repair the chair?    It    is in the study room.

Can you repair the chair       which is in the study room?

that is in the study room?

 

The student is happy. She got the highest mark on the test.

The student             who got the highest mark on the test is happy.

that got the highest mark on the test

 

The chair is broken. It is in the study room.

The chair                  which is in the study room is broken.

that is in the study room

 

I congratulated the student who got the highest mark. (tense relation)

I helped the woman who had difficulty carrying the heavy shopping bags.

They will give a prize to the person who wins the competition.

They gave a prize to the person who won the competition.

He saw the girl who would marry him later.

 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS OBJECT OF A VERB

 

The applicant is suitable for the job. We interviewed her yesterday.

The applicant                who     we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

whom  we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

that      we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

—–      we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job.

 

The book is very interesting. I bought it last week.

The book                 which  I bought last week is very interesting.

that      I bought last week is very interesting.

—–      I bought last week is very interesting.

 

The man was a sales representative. We met him yesterday.

The man                     who we met yesterday was a sales representative.

                   whom we met yesterday was a sales representative.

                   that we met yesterday was a sales representative.

——we met yesterday was a sales representative.

 

 

USING “WHOSE” AND “OF WHICH”, …..OF WHOM

 

The man is our next-door neighbour. I want to buy his car.

The man whose car I want to buy is our next-door neighbour. (…..the car of whom……)

 

Can you repair the chair? Its legs are broken. Can you repair the chair whose legs are broken?

 

The book was my friend’s. I accidentally tore its cover.

The book whose cover I accidentally tore was my friend’s. (….the cover of which….)

 

This is the machine. I described its properties.

This is the machine        whose properties        I described.

This is the machine       the properties of which I described.

The houses are being repaired now. Their roofs were damaged during the storm.

The houses whose roofs were damaged during the last storm are being repaired now. (…the roofs of which..

 

I can’t open the door. Its handle is broken.

I can’t open the door whose handle is broken. (…..the handle of which ……)

This is the man. Jake is going out with his daughter.

This is the man            whose daughter Jake is going out with.

with whose daughter Jake is going out. (…..with the daughter of whom …..)

 

Do you remember the man? I told you about his love affairs.

Do you remember the man                  whose love affairs I told you about?

                          about whose love affairs I told you?

 

The mountain is a part of the mountain range Bozdağ. You see snow on top.

The mountain on the top of which/on whose top you see snow is a part of mountain range Bozdağ.

 

“WHERE” (in/on/at/from which)

I liked the seaside resort. We spent our holiday there (in that town) last summer.

I liked the seaside resort where we spent our holiday last summer,

 

I liked the seaside resort      which we spent our holiday in last summer.

that we spent our holiday in last summer.

                                                                —  we spent our holiday in last summer.

                                                                in which we spent our holiday last summer.

 

Don’t clean the room today                   which my son Is studying in.

that my son is studying in.

                                                                       —-  my son is studying in.

               in which my son is studying.

 

This is the restaurant. I usually eat lunch there (at this restaurant.)

This is the restaurant                      which I usually eat lunch at.

that I usually eat lunch at.

—– I usually eat lunch at.

at which I usually eat lunch.

This is the restaurant                       where I usually eat lunch.

 

I like the house. I was born there. (in that house – adverb of place)

I like the house                 where I was born.

which I was born in.

that I was born in.

…… I was born in.

in which I was born.

“WHEN” (on/at/in which)

 

1923 is the year. The Republic of Turkey was founded then. (in that year)

1923 is the year            when the Republic of Turkey was founded.

that the Republic of Turkey was founded.

—-  the Republic of Turkey was founded.

in which the Republic of Turkey was founded.

 

Saturday is the day. We usually go shopping then. (on that day)

Saturday is the day            when we usually go shopping.

that we usually go shopping.

—– we usually go shopping.

on which we usually go shopping.

 

“WHY” (for which)

The reason                why we are holding this meeting is to seek solutions to our recent problems.

                                       that we are holding this meeting

—– we are holding this meeting

for which we are holding this meeting

 

The reason                that he gave us for the delay frustrated us all.

                 which he gave us for the delay

—— he gave us for the delay

 

The explanations that the teacher made on the subject confused us.

which the teacher made on the subject

——   the teacher made on the subject

 

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

  1. a) Proper nouns

The person who lives above us is an engineer. (defining)

Mr. Smith, who lives above us, is an engineer. (non-defining)

 

A country which is by the sea is usually a tourist attraction. (defining)

Turkey, which is surrounded by the sea on three- sides, is of strategic importance. (non-defining)

  1. b) Nouns with preceding modifiers

A mother who is very permissive with her children doesn’t necessarily mean a good mother. (defining)

My mother, who lives in Germany now, was moderately permissive with us. (non-defining)

 

Any bus which comes here already full doesn’t stop at this bus-stop. (defining)

This bus, which usually comes here already full, goes direct to Kadıköy. (non-defining)

 

The book which is on the table belongs to me. (defining)

That green book, which is on the table, belongs to me. (non-defining)

 

The man at the shop, who gave my son a sweet, was friendly. (non-defining)

The table in the kitchen, which we usually have our breakfast on, needs repairing. (non-defining)

 

  1. c) Coal, rice, milk, flower, etc. (known by everybody)

 

Flowers, which almost everybody likes, need special care to grow. (general-non-defining)

The flowers which are sold at that florist’s are usually fresh. (specific-defining)

 

Milk, which is essential for everybody of all ages, should be boiled well. (general-non-defining)

The milk which you get from that dairy is really delicious.(specific-defining)

 

POSSESSIVE

 

My classmate Susan doesn’t want to be a doctor. Her parents are both doctors.

My classmate Susan, whose parents are both doctors, doesn’t want to be a doctor.

 

Their house cost them too much money. They painted its exterior pink.

Their house,                     whose exterior they painted pink,                 cost them too much money.

,the  exterior of which they painted pink,

 

“WHERE” IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

Istanbul has many problems to solve. More than ten million people live there. (in Istanbul)

Istanbul,         where  more than ten million people live, has many problems to solve.

,which more than ten million people live in,

    ,in which more than ten million people live,

 

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. It is my hometown. (It – Subject)

Salihli, which is my hometown, is located in the west of Turkey.

 

Salihli is located in the west of Turkey. I was born there. (in Salihli – adverb of place)

Salihli,            where  I was born, is located in the west of Turkey.

          which  I was born in,

in which I warn born,

 

USING “WHICH” TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE

 

She got a rather low grade on the test. That surprised me.

She got a rather low grade on the test, which surprised me.

 

It’s impossible for us to catch the train. This will be very bad.

It’s impossible for us to catch the train, which will be very bad.

 

They invited me to their wedding. I appreciated that very much.

They invited me to their wedding, which I appreciated very much.

 

He helped me. That was kind of him.

He helped me, which was kind of him. (=It was kind of him to help me.)

 

They lent me a large sum. That was generous of them.

They lent me a large sum, which was generous of them.

(=It was generous of them to lend me a large sum.)

 

 

REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

 

Gerund / Present participle                      Infinitive                 Past participle Perfect participle

V+ ing (doing)                                       to V1 (to do)                     V3 (done)                               having V(having done)

 

  1. a) present participle: the boy running, the people waiting for the bus, etc. (V+ing)

present cont., past continuous, simple present, simple past tense.

 

The man who lives upstairs is making too much noise.

The man   living upstairs is making too much noise.

The woman who is talking to the teacher is my mother.

The woman     talking to the teacher is my mother.

 

The customers who wanted to see the manager looked very angry.

The customers   wanting to see the manager looked very angry.

 

The children who were playing in the rain seemed very happy.

The children           playing in the rain seemed very happy

 

I need a bottle which holds two litres of liquid.

I need a bottle    holding two litres of liquid.

 

The tree which blocked the road was blown down by the storm.

The tree   blocking the road was blown down by the storm.

 

Her parents, who expect her to get a high grade, will be disappointed if she can’t.

Her parents,  expecting her to get a high grade, will be disappointed if she can’t,

 

Mary, who wanted to make an impression on the teacher, studied very hard.

Mary   wanting to make an impression on the teacher, studied very hard.

 

 

  1. b) Past participle: the money stolen from the bank, the explanations mode by the Prime Minister, etc. (V3)

 

The child who was punished by the teacher was standing in the corner.

The child      punished by the teacher was standing in the corner.

 

I like to listen to songs which are sung in Turkish.

I like to listen to songs sung in Turkish.

 

Her husband, who was promoted to a higher position, will get more money.

Her husband,      promoted to a higher position, will get more money.

 

 

  1. c) To + infinitive (to V1)

 

  1. a) Yesterday, I was the last person who left the office.

Yesterday I was the last person to leave the office.

 

I’m usually the first person who leaves the office.

I’m usually the first person to leave the office.

 

  1. b) The only man that was seen there that day was Mr Smith.

The only man to be seen there that day was Smith.

 

  1. c) The best route that can be followed is through the woods.

              The best route to be followed    is through, the woods.

 

  1. d) There was nothing that we could There was nothing to eat.

I have a lot of work that I must  do. I have a lot of work to do.

Today, I will have many clients that I must deal with. Today I will have many clients to deal with.

 

  1. d) A Perfect Participial Phrase

 

Simple past, present perfect, past perfect tense >having done (active), having been done (passive)

 

The students who attended our course last year will get a discount this year.

The students having attended our course last year will get a discount this year.

 

The students who have finished their work can go out.

The students having finished their work can go out.

 

Mary, who had finished her work, left the classroom after the teacher’s announcement.

Mary, having finished her work, left the classroom after the teacher’s announcement.

 

The passengers, who had travelled more than eight hours, felt exhausted.

The passengers, having travelled more than eight hours, felt exhausted.

 

She, who was once interested in rock music, now listens to classical. (order of the phrases)

Once interested in rock music, she now listens to classical.

 

Today’s people, who aren’t thinking of the future generations, are cruelly polluting the earth. (order of the phrases)

Today’s people, not thinking of the future generations, are cruelly polluting the earth.

Not thinking of the future generations, today’s people are cruelly polluting the earth.

 

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