1- CLAUSES OF REASON
because, for, as, since, on the grounds that, owing to, due to
It worked because it was well planned.
He fooled me for I was young then.
I liked him as he was honest.
Since they said please, I said yes.
NOTE: He was late because of / due to heavy traffic. He was late because of / due to the fact that there was heavy traffic.
2- CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
1) the infinitive (to V1)
2) in order (not) to V1, in order that (+ may I might),
so as (not) to V1; so that (+ can I will could I would),
for fear that + might I should; for fear of + -ing,
with a view to + -ing, with the aim of + -ing
We’re here (in order) to discuss business.
We walked home together so as to feel safer.
I got a taxi so as not to be late.
She opened the window so that she could see better.
We can’t go out for fear that they’ll see us.
3) for + noun I -ing form:
This knife is for cutting bread with.
3- CLAUSES OF RESULT
1) such + (a / an) + (adjective) + noun (that clause);
such + a lot of + noun
2) so + adjective / adverb (that clause)
so + adjective + (a / an) + noun
so + few / little / much / many + noun
You’re such a silly boy I can’t trust you.
They were such nice people that I couldn’t say no.
It was such bad weather that we stayed indoors.
The earth is so dry that nothing will grow now.
It happened so quickly I couldn’t react.
It was so boring a lecture we almost fell asleep.
It was such a cold morning that we stayed in.
OR: It was so cold a morning that we stayed in.
I’ve got so much time that I’ll do it.
OR: I’ve got such a lot of time that I’ll do it.
She had so many friends that she never felt lonely.
OR: She had such a lot of friends that she never
It was so far that they didn’t go.
OR: It was such a long way that they didn’t go.
Also: There were not enough candidates for interviews to be held.
There were so few candidates that the interviews were cancelled.
She didn’t have the patience not to shout.
She had so little patience that she shouted.
4- CLAUSES OF CONTRAST
although, (even) though, even if, however, whatever, in spite of, despite, nevertheless, nonetheless
(= nevertheless), no matter what, while, whereas.
Although we were early, we missed the bus.
I said yes, though I didn’t want to.
Even though I worked hard, they sacked me.
However hard you try, you’ll never convince me.
Whatever happens, we’ll be here for you.
In spite of / Despite being rich, they’re not happy.
It was pouring with rain, nevertheless / nonetheless their trip went ahead.
She won’t come, no matter what you say.
* In spite of / Despite the fact that he’d signed the contract, he changed his mind.
OR: In spite of / Despite having signed the contract, he changed his mind.]
1) Although, though and even though are often followed by ‘may’ to emphasise hypothetical cases:
They won’t catch me even though they may try. Although I may look calm, really I’m nervous.
2) However / No matter how + adj I adv. (+ object) + subj.(may) + verb
However much money you offer me, I’ll never sell it.
However many times I may tell him, he still does it.
However tired you are / you may be, you must finish the job.
3) Instead of a clause of contrast with though, we can also use this structure:
adjective I adverb + as I though + subject + verb
Young as she is, she still might not recover. (= Although she’s young,…)
Exhausted as / though I was, I continued walking.
Much as I disagree with your politics, I admit you’re right about this.
Hard as he tried, he couldn’t solve the puzzle.
5- CLAUSES OF TIME
after, as long as, as soon as, before, by, by the time, hardly / scarcely… when, the sooner, no sooner … than, the moment / minute (that), since, till, until, when, whenever, while, once
I’ll pay for the goods as soon as I get them. No sooner was he released than he stole a car.
* Note that we do not generally use a future tense in a time clause:
Call me when you know. [NOT: … when you will know
I’ll tell him the moment I see him. [NOT: … the moment I will see …]
CLAUSES OF REASON
Because he is ill, he hasn’t come to school today.
He couldn’t buy any milk because the store was closed.
We took a taxi to work because it was raining.
Because I lost my ticket, I cannot come with you today.
I cannot eat lunch because I had breakfast late.
She went to Istanbul because Mary is there.
Because I am busy, I won’t talk to them.
She didn’t buy that car, for it uses too much petrol.
We decided not to play outside, for it was very cold.
I will take off my jacket, for the weather is hot.
Since many students were absent, the teacher cancelled the test.
They have been having some problems since they lost their jobs.
Since I was tired, I took a break.
Since he drove very fast, we couldn’t reach him.
Since her parents are in London, she lives with her aunt.
As it is too late, I won’t come with you.
As we were very tired, we went to bed early.
They stayed at home during the weekend as it was snowing.
We had better leave now as it is getting dark.
Seeing that I was late, I decided to take a taxi.
They went swimming seeing that it was sunny.
Now that you are rich, you can buy that expensive car.
Now that you are married, you don’t have to iron your shirts.
Let’s go to a restaurant now that it is your birthday.
Inasmuch as I already know you, I shall call you Jim, not James.
Inasmuch as they are friends, we can seat them together.
The radio station closed down on the grounds that it was operating illegally.
They rejected my application on the grounds that I am not old enough.