Time clauses are introduced by expressions such as when, while, as long as, since, before, after, as soon as, until, by the time, no sooner .. than, once etc.
* As soon as the referee blew his whistle, the game began.
* I will buy the book when it has been published.
* When I was a baby, I used to suck my finger.
* When he was in England, he would always take part in social activities.
* I will not leave the room until I am given my money.
* They moved casually around the side of the hall until they came to the exit.
* He hauled himself up into the hole until his head and shoulder were through it.
* As he finished the story, the wing blew bitingly cold along the street and he shivered.
* He was paddling on his surfboard when the shark attacked him.
* He fell off the boat when the shark attacked him.
These clauses are introduced by where, wherever.
* I can’t live where he lives.
* They will stop wherever the captain decides.
These clauses are started with because, for, since, as, seeing that, now that.
* As I know the language, I won’t need an interpreter.
* I won’t need an interpreter because I know the language.
* Man is the only animal who laughs and weeps, for he is the only animal who is struck with the difference between what things are and what they ought to be.
* I asked her to call at my office, for I had something to tell her.
These clauses are introduced by so ………..that, such a (an)……………..that.
* He was so strong that he could shrug himself free.
* The reply was so direct and innocent that it couldn’t be a lie.
* The greyish white skin was drawn so tightly over his bones that his face looked like a skull.
* The lady’s voice was so fierce that everybody stopped laughing.
* It was such a horrifying film that I turned the television oft.
* The enemy soldiers had to fall back because the attack was very fierce.
The attack was so fierce that the enemy soldiers had to withdraw. It was such a fierce attack that the enemy soldiers had to fall back.
These clauses are introduced by so that, in order that, for fear that, for the purpose that, lest.
* He hid behind a hedge so that his father wouldn’t see him.
* They bought more food than they needed for fear that they might not find anything to eat in the mountains.
* We closed all the windows lest the mosquitoes might disturb us.
These clauses are started with although, though, even if, even though, no matter wh-, while, whereas, however etc.
* Even if you have got the qualifications, you won’t get the lob. (You haven’t got the qualifications.)
* Even though you’ve got the qualifications you won’t get the job. (You have got the qualifications.)
* No matter how much you try, you cannot please your wife.
* Although light, sound and heat can be sensed by our sensory organs, they cannot be accepted as matter, but energy. Because they don’t have the properties of matter.
These clauses are introduced by as, as if, as though.
* I did as I was instructed.
* She acts as if she were Miss Globe.
* He behaved as if he had created the small mountains.
* She speaks as if butter wouldn’t melt in her mouth.
* Do as I say not as I do.
These clauses are introduced by more, the + comparative the + comparative.
* The more I know the more I become aware of my ignorance.
So that / In case
There’s a relationship between the expressions so that and in case.
So that expresses a purpose while in case expresses a possible imaginary case which we feel obliged to take precautions against.
* Take your umbrella with you, it may rain.
Take your umbrella with you in case it rains.
* Take your umbrella with you if you don’t want to get wet. Take your umbrella with you so that you won’t get wet.